Saturday, September 21, 2019
Political Cartoon Assignment Essay The political cartoon that I chose mainly aims towards people who are concerned about the environment and people who are against The American Clean Energy and Security Act. An every day citizen may not get the entire meaning of the cartoon if they do not know the motive behind it or do not follow politics and environmental news. The cartoon is political because it clearly states two things that weigh heavily on the minds of the public right now: tax and the environment. While this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t typically necessarily mean that a cartoon would be political, the word Ã¢â¬Å"billÃ¢â¬ on the page in the manÃ¢â¬â¢s hand points in the direction of political. The cartoon effectively shows two sides of the issue: one where the public is being told that the bill would cause a tax increase that the American consumers would ultimately have to deal with and another side where the environmentally-conscious person is saying that itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a scare tactic and that it would cause more good than harm for the country. At first glance, the cartoon was humorous, but the more I looked at it and began to understand what it was talking about, my thoughts began to change. Although itÃ¢â¬â¢s still funny, the cartoon carries a deeper meaning than just entertainment. The main thing that I felt was slight irritation that people could think that there are only two ways of looking at the issue and that people could be so concerned about taxes that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t even think about the environment that weÃ¢â¬â¢re living in. Although what is being shown is comical, the emotions behind what the artist is trying to show the viewer is not. Even if he shows that there are two sides of the issue, he still wants you to realize that economists are using the current state of the economy to play on your emotions and try to convince you that youÃ¢â¬â¢re ultimately hurting yourself by supporting the bill. Whether or not the artist was successful in the attempt to persuade the viewer into a way of thinking is up to the interpretation of each individual person. For me, it was successful. I was able to see the two different sides of the issue and while I understand both, I was able to draw my own conclusion and say that there needs to be some sort of middle ground. In part, the artist wants you to see how youÃ¢â¬â¢re being manipulated by the economists and the people that are against the bill to believe that the bill will have more of an impact on your bank account in terms of more taxes rather than having a good impact on the environment. Although IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always known that there are people who are against the bill, before seeing it in cartoon form, I never really realized that they really might be just a way of making people choose one or the other; the environment or your money. In terms of opening my eyes, the artist was successful.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Importance of History and Context Considerations for Clients Historical and Contextual Considerations for Clients Siobhan L. Healy Abstract This paper discusses four cases in total, two from the perspective of a psychologist in private practice and two from the perspective of a school psychologist. First, we will be covering two clients who visited Dr. GoldsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s private practice: Client #1: Brian, a 28 year old, married father of a two year old daughter and a six month old infant son, is expressing a feeling of unhappiness. He states that he is miserable, making everyone around him miserable. Client #2: Cindy, a 41 year old, recently divorced woman without children and high school education is not able to relax and worries about something all the time. She experiences a feeling of Ã¢â¬Å"going crazyÃ¢â¬ . Next, we will be discussing two clients Dr. Venneman, the school psychologist, is covering: Client #1: Rosie, a 7-year-old second-grader from an intact family has recently moved into the school district and was referred for experiencing academic difficulties concerning reading and writing, as well as social difficulties with her classmates. Client #2: Marco, a 17 year old high school student was referred for failing grades and refusal to follow course sequences. He is considering dropping out of school. The hypothesis for this paper is, that, when clinicians are able to gather enough information about their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ history and weave together pertinent data to get a clear picture of each case, they will be able to use the correct assessment in order to design a treatment plan. According to Groth-Marnat, the evaluation of the referral question in each case is of great importance. An inaccurate clarification of a problem can result in practical limitations of psychological evaluations. It is the cliniciansÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility to provide useful information and to clarify the requests they receive, and each clinician is aware of the value and the limitations of psychological tests. Furthermore, clinicians should not assume that requests for evaluation and referrals are adequately described or elaborated on. In fact, clinicians may need to uproot unspoken expectations of clients and uncover interpersonal relationships and hidden agendas. Limitations of psychological tests need to be explained to clients and the clinician is required to fully understand the vocabulary, dynamics, referral setting, and conceptual model (Groth-Marnat, 2003). Because clinicians are rarely asked to provide a general or global assessment, but are instead expected to answer specific questions, they need to address these questions and should contact the source of the referral at various stages in the assessment process. In an educational evaluation, such as in RosieÃ¢â¬â¢s and MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s case, the school psychologist should observe the student in the classroom environment. The information gathered from such an observation should then be relayed back to the source of the referral (school) in order to get further clarification and, possibly, a modification of the initial referral question (Groth-Marnat, 2003). After gaining insight into the referral question, clinicians should proceed with the collection of information. A variety of sources may be used for this purpose, such as personal history, interview data, behavioral observations, and test scores. Furthermore, clinicians could obtain any previous psychological evaluations, medical records, police reports, school records, or they could discuss the current issues with the client and/or with parents or teachers (Groth-Marnat, 2003). For example, Dr. Goldstein could ask his client, Brian, the 28 year old father of two small children, a few background questions, such as, Ã¢â¬Å"when did you first experience the feeling of unhappiness and what exactly do you do to make everyone around you miserableÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"how was your marriage before the birth of your childrenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"what may be additional stress factors besides the overwhelming task of having two young childrenÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"how is your social lifeÃ¢â¬ ? Furthermore, Dr. Goldstein should explore any possible medical reasons for BrianÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"unhappinessÃ¢â¬ . Once the clinician has ruled out certain factors that may be contributing to BrianÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, he may be able to pinpoint the cause of his unhappiness and determine that Brian is simply and temporarily overwhelmed by the addition of a new baby to an already stressful life. After all, additionally to having to go to work to financially support a family of four, Brian is most likely sleep deprived due to his infant sonÃ¢â¬â¢s irregular sleep pattern. Ultimately, BrianÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and daughter may be placing unreasonable demands on him by asking for more help and attention. Most likely this phase will pass and the clinician will be able to design a solid assessment and treatment plan. Dr. GoldsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s second case of Cindy, the 41 year old, divorced female, may be a complex one to examine. Once again, Dr. Goldstein should ask Cindy questions such as Ã¢â¬Å"what were the reasons for your recent divorceÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"when did you first experience the feeling of Ã¢â¬Å"going crazyÃ¢â¬ and how does it presentÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"what kind of worries are the most prevalent and what have you tried to do in order to relaxÃ¢â¬ ? After ruling out a medical problem, the clinician should examine CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s situation carefully, as it sounds like she may be suffering from anxiety and depression due to her recent divorce. After the divorce, she may have also lost common friends she shared with her partner. The divorce may have left her financially and emotionally drained and she may be going through a midlife crisis. In cases like that, the potential for substance abuse as a coping mechanism can be high. With detailed information about CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s background, D r. Goldstein should be able to create a thorough assessment and a feasible treatment plan. In the case of Rosie, the 7-year-old second-grader from an intact family who recently moved to a new school district, the school psychologist, Dr. Venneman, should obtain any and all school and medical records and he should gather as much information from RosieÃ¢â¬â¢s parents and current and former teachers (or principals). Dr. Venneman should explore whether Rosie had any academic issues in her former school. She may have to get an eye exam to rule out a vision problem since her decreasing performance involves reading and writing. After ruling out any medical problems, Dr. Venneman should find out if Rosie may be missing her old friends and social activities. He should ask parents and teachers questions such as Ã¢â¬Å"has she made any friends at all yetÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"is she still involved in the sports activities that she used to enjoyÃ¢â¬ ? It is very likely that Rosie is just experiencing a temporary loss of a sense of stability (of a predictable environment and routine) a nd the loss of her friends due to the move. Once she is used to her new situation, she will most likely be able to adapt, make new friends, and catch up with school work. In the case of Marco, the 17 year old high school student who is considering dropping out of school, Dr. Venneman may have to explore his school and police records and conduct interviews with his family and teachers. After ruling out a medical condition or a possible criminal past, the clinician should ask Marco and everyone concerned a number of questions, such as Ã¢â¬Å"how long has the lack of interest in school work persisted and what was done to interveneÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"what are his peers likeÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"what does Marco want for his futureÃ¢â¬ ? Fortunately, Marco is a short time away from graduating from high school and the clinician should put emphasis on finding a quick and solid solution to jump-start MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation. In all of these cases, it is important to realize that any tests themselves are just one tool (or source) for gathering data. Each case history is of importance as it provides the clinician a context for understanding each clientÃ¢â¬â¢s current issue and with this knowledge the test scores become meaningful. A number of ethical guidelines have emerged for conducting formal assessments, ensuring Ã¢â¬Å"that appropriate professional relationships and procedures are developed and maintainedÃ¢â¬ (Groth-Marnat, 2003, p.48). When assessing all of the above clients, the clinician must carefully consider what constitutes his or her ideal practice. There will always be difficulties involving assessment procedures. The main issues are the Ã¢â¬Å"use of tests in inappropriate contexts, confidentiality, cultural bias, invasion of privacy, and the continued use of tests that are inadequately validatedÃ¢â¬ (Groth-Marnat, 2003, p.48); consequently, this has resulted in many restrictions as to the use of certain tests, increased skepticism, and a greater need for clarification within regarding ethical standards within the field of psychology (Groth-Marnat, 2003). As in RosieÃ¢â¬â¢s and MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s case, the clinician would be concerned about dealing with minors, especially if one was diagnosed with a disability, and should obtain consent to perform the assessments through a parent or legal guardian. As described by Steege Watson (2013) Ã¢â¬Å"when information is systematically collected and analyzed for the express purpose of determining behavioral function and the development of a BIP, it should be considered an evaluation and parental permission obtainedÃ¢â¬ (p.34). Furthermore, it would be unethical of Dr. Goldstein, for example, to reveal information about Brian or Cindy to others, unless the clients are posing a risk to themselves or others (such as a threat of suicide or homicide) (Steege Watson, 2013). In the case of Cindy, Dr. Goldstein could begin with a semi-structured interview format and list a sequence of questions that he would like to ask her. The first series of questions could include: Ã¢â¬Å"What are some important concerns that you may have?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Could you describe the most important of these concerns?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"When did the difficulty first begin?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How often does it occur?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Have there been any changes in how often it has occurred?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What happens after the behavior(s) occurs?Ã¢â¬ (Groth-Marnat, 2003, p. 79-80). Since clients vary in their personal characteristics (age, degree of cooperation, educational level, etc.) and type of problem (childhood difficulties, legal problems, psychological problems), the questions should vary from person to person (Groth-Marnat, 2003). In CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s case, the above questions are appropriate to ask. The series of questions should not be rigid, but asked with a certain level of flexibility, in order to explore relevant but unique issues that may arise during the interview. It is difficult to speculate on the conduction and outcome of the interview, because different theoretical perspectives will exist when it comes to clinician-client interaction between Dr. Goldstein and Cindy. It is important to note, that, a successful interview is achieved first and foremost with a proper attitude of the clinician, and not so much by what he or she says or does. The interviewer should always express Ã¢â¬Å"sincerity, acceptance, understanding, genuine interest, warmth , and a positive regard for the worth of the person. If clinicians do not demonstrate these qualities, they are unlikely to achieve the goals of the interview, no matter how these are definedÃ¢â¬ (Groth-Marnat, 2003, p. 80). Dr. Goldstein should be aware of the interviewer effect because his interview with Cindy is a social interaction and his appearance may influence her answers. This is a common problem and such bias can render the results of the study invalid. For example, body language, age, gender, ethnicity, or social status of the interviewer can create this effect. If Dr. Goldstein happens to be of the same age and ethnicity of CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s ex-husband, with a similar social status and body language, she may not answer all the questions without bias. Unfortunately, there is always going to be such a possibility when conducting an interview. After Dr. Goldstein has concluded the interview with Cindy, he will then provide an outline of the behavioral assessment, similar to the behavioral interview. He will initially provide Cindy with an overview of what has to be accomplished with a clearly detailed specification of her problem behavior. Dr. Goldstein will identify the target behavior(s) and define them in exact behavioral terms. For example, CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s target behaviors may be excessive worry and inability to relax as part of an anxiety disorder. The clinician will then determine the problem frequency, duration, and intensity (Ã¢â¬Å"How many times has the feeling of Ã¢â¬Å"going crazyÃ¢â¬ occurred today,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How long did it persistÃ¢â¬ , etc.). He will then identify the conditions in which the problems (worrying, not being able to relax, and so on) occur Ã¢â¬Å"in terms of its antecedents, behaviors, and consequencesÃ¢â¬ (Groth-Marnat, 2003, p. 114). Dr. Goldstein will determine the desired level of CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and consider an estimate of how realistic this is for her with possible deadlines. He will definitely identify CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and also suggest procedures for measuring her relevant behaviors. He will decipher who will record what and how will it be recorded, when and where. Then, Dr. Goldstein will determine how the effectiveness of the program should be evaluated. After completing the discussion of areas, he will summarize it to ensure that Cindy understands and agrees. Again, this outline should not be rigid and should be used as a general guideline (Groth-Marnat, 2003). In CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s case, the behavioral interview itself may have presented enough material for an adequate assessment but some form of actual behavioral observation may be required before, during, and after treatment. A method for observing the behavior(s) is often decided on during the initial behavioral interview. While interviews primarily serve to obtain verbal information from clients, behavioral observation conducted to actually carry out certain techniques and strategies of measuring relevant areas of behavior that were previously discussed during the behavioral interview. With Cindy, a behavioral observation may be useful, although it is usually used more frequently in cases such as assessing young children, the developmentally disabled, or resistant clients, but it would be interesting to obtain interval recording, narrative recording, ratings recording, and event recording. Dr. Goldstein may ask Cindy to observe her relevant target behaviors. He and Cindy will have to decid e on the number of target behaviors to record and the complexity of a recording method, as the task will have to remain manageable and not Ã¢â¬Å"overly complexÃ¢â¬ (Groth-Marnat, 2003). Target behavior(s) should be identified in a narrative description of CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems and later specified by determining the antecedents and consequences related to her problem behavior. All of her behaviors need to be measured in an objective manner, with complete definitions that enable concise observations of the measures of the behaviors. Such definitions should not include abstract terms, such as absentmindedness or sadness, and instead concentrate on specific behaviors. Furthermore, the definitions should be easy to read. When Dr. Goldstein is measuring behavioral frequencies, he must clearly define when the behaviors begin and end. It can be difficult to measure less clearly defined behaviors. The recordings should measure the duration of behaviors and their intensity. For example, how fast does CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s heart beat during an anxiety/panic attack in which she feels that she is losing her mind and how long did this heart rate remain? Measurements as such will deter mine how urgent and strong a treatment approach should be (Groth-Marnat, 2003). Of further importance is the setting of a behavioral observation and it can range from a natural setting to a highly structured one. Natural, or in vivo, settings for Cindy can include her home, the park, or the mall. Such natural settings are the most effective ones when trying to assess high-frequency or depressive behaviors, as in CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s case. Unfortunately, observations in natural settings require an extensive amount of time but are useful when the amount of change the client has made is measured after a treatment. Dr. Goldstein may decide to create a structured environment, such as a role play, that bring out specific types of behaviors. Such environments can be important for infrequent behaviors but this type of setting may not generalize into CindyÃ¢â¬â¢s actual life. The training of the observer has to include a clear understanding of measuring the behaviors, emphasizing on taking objective and accurate recordings. The clinician should take precautions to avoid obse rver error, through bias, lapses in concentration, leniency, and discussing of data with other observers. Reliability may be checked by Ã¢â¬Å"comparing the degree of agreement between different observers rating the same behaviorsÃ¢â¬ (Groth-Marnat, 2003, p.116). After gathering enough information about their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ history and pertinent data during behavioral interviews and assessments, clinicians have a clear picture of each case and will be able to design and implement the correct treatment plan. References Groth-Marnat, Gary (2003). Handbook of Psychological Assessment 4th ed. John Wiley Sons. Retrieved on 20 February 2015 from http://marijag.home.mruni.eu/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/handbook-of-psychological-assessment-fourth-edition.pdf. Steege, M.W., Watson, T.S. (2013). Conducting School-Based Functional Behavioral Assessments, Second Edition. Guilford Press. VitalBook file.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Comparing Wealth, Power, and Virtue in Measure for Measure and Mrs. Warrens Profession :: comparison compare contrast essays
Wealth, Power, and Virtue in Measure for Measure and Mrs. WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Profession Ã Ã As seen in the dramas Measure for Measure and Mrs. WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Profession, the Elizabethan and Victorian periods have different views of wealth, power and virtue. To compare these views, one should start by defining the different views of virtue. The people of the Elizabethan times see virtue in obtaining a balance of their three souls and as promoting order within their society and city. Also in this period of time, wealth and power were rarely gained, but when they were, it was due to virtue. Conversely, in Mrs. WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Profession, virtue is interpreted as a person trying to change how the poor were treated by the industrialists; and this could only be done when a person already had wealth or power. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Measure for Measure, Isabella starts off seeming to be a very virtuous person: she is entering a very strict nunnery and living a purely rational and sinless life. As the play goes on she chooses to keep her virtue by not sleeping with Angelo. However, we start to see her virtue come into question when she coldly and with no compassion tells her brother Claudio to "Die Quickly!" (III, i, 135) This shows that she is not using her emotional soul. But, at the end of the play, Isabella shows that she has the ability to utilize her emotional soul when she forgives Angelo; at the same time proving she has a balanced soul. From this action, the Duke realizes that Isabella is truly virtuous and then, because of this, asks her to marry him (V, i, 530). We can clearly see that Isabella is rewarded for her virtuous actions at the conclusion of Measure to Measure.Ã This positive conclusion demonstrates the Elizabethan society's tendency to prize virtue as achieved through a balanced soul. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Isabella is not only seen to be virtuous because of her balanced soul, she would have also been seen as virtuous because her actions to preserve order in Vienna.Ã At the beginning of Measure for Measure, the Duke goes into
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Our Dysfunctional Haverworld As we seniors graduate and head out into the world, one of the things I bet most of us will seek is community. This seems to be one of the requirements for a sustainable society: one that is adaptive according to small, diverse regions, so that local conditions are met with appropriate technologies, and one that functions with a strong ethic based on social ties. In my future I want to feel I am included in and contributing to a supportive, caring and ethical community, whose values of sustainability determine our relationship to nature. I have not found this at Haverford College, as a collective society and an institution. (I hope you all can relate to this from Swarthmore as well. I doubt the two are really very different.) In fact, Haverford has helped me define what I do not want to be a part of--a large corporation that deals in the currency of its own prestige as well as its funding, concentrated only on maximizing the profits of this kind, rather than valuing the equity and ju stice that we have agreed should overrule economic decisions. Al Gore's comparison of US society to a dysfunctional family translates perfectly to the society at Haverford. This helps to explain the lack of ethics concerning justice and sustainability, and suggests that there is hope to resolve these problems. At Haverford and Swarthmore we embody the Cartesian model developed in the scientific revolution that focuses on the separation between humans and nature, mind and body. Our colleges contain an extreme version of what Gore calls "the disembodied intellect"(524) in which we value our abstract academic thoughts above all else, as we "encourage the fullest expression of thought while simultaneously stifling the e... ...ion of forest. We are committed to overconsumption in our extravagant use of paper, purchases of products to decorate our rooms and clean ourselves, and waste of food in the large cafeteria. I notice that most of us in this class have removed ourselves from these aspects of college culture as much as possible, to shield ourselves from it. I personally shield myself by trying to limit my interactions to those with my close friends, with whom my relationships are much less dysfunctional. I hope you all will relate in some form to my analysis, and I hope as a class we can carry this further. In pinpointing the aspects of liberal arts college life that lack the ethics that are desirable and necessary to build sustainable communities, I hope we will dare to envision in detail the situation that would make us feel fulfilled and at peace with ourselves and our environment. Our Dysfunctional Haverworld Essay -- Personal Narrative Descriptive P Our Dysfunctional Haverworld As we seniors graduate and head out into the world, one of the things I bet most of us will seek is community. This seems to be one of the requirements for a sustainable society: one that is adaptive according to small, diverse regions, so that local conditions are met with appropriate technologies, and one that functions with a strong ethic based on social ties. In my future I want to feel I am included in and contributing to a supportive, caring and ethical community, whose values of sustainability determine our relationship to nature. I have not found this at Haverford College, as a collective society and an institution. (I hope you all can relate to this from Swarthmore as well. I doubt the two are really very different.) In fact, Haverford has helped me define what I do not want to be a part of--a large corporation that deals in the currency of its own prestige as well as its funding, concentrated only on maximizing the profits of this kind, rather than valuing the equity and ju stice that we have agreed should overrule economic decisions. Al Gore's comparison of US society to a dysfunctional family translates perfectly to the society at Haverford. This helps to explain the lack of ethics concerning justice and sustainability, and suggests that there is hope to resolve these problems. At Haverford and Swarthmore we embody the Cartesian model developed in the scientific revolution that focuses on the separation between humans and nature, mind and body. Our colleges contain an extreme version of what Gore calls "the disembodied intellect"(524) in which we value our abstract academic thoughts above all else, as we "encourage the fullest expression of thought while simultaneously stifling the e... ...ion of forest. We are committed to overconsumption in our extravagant use of paper, purchases of products to decorate our rooms and clean ourselves, and waste of food in the large cafeteria. I notice that most of us in this class have removed ourselves from these aspects of college culture as much as possible, to shield ourselves from it. I personally shield myself by trying to limit my interactions to those with my close friends, with whom my relationships are much less dysfunctional. I hope you all will relate in some form to my analysis, and I hope as a class we can carry this further. In pinpointing the aspects of liberal arts college life that lack the ethics that are desirable and necessary to build sustainable communities, I hope we will dare to envision in detail the situation that would make us feel fulfilled and at peace with ourselves and our environment.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Research had identified the foremost accomplishment of infancy and early childhood, and they are referring to language development. The milestones of linguistic achievement have been documented across cultures and suggest that infants follow a set of universal stages both in speech production and speech perception. On the stages in speech production shown by young infants in American English and other languages; a universal progression from cooing (1 to 4 months), to babbling (5 to 10 months), to meaningful speech (10 to 18 months) is shown (Ferguson, Menn, & Stoel-Gammon, 1992).Visual and auditory development is related with the development of speech perception. Infant vision is not that developed when they are born. They can see blurry vision but enable them to perceive familiar faces from unfamiliar ones. The infant is somewhat farsighted and has some degree of astigmatism because the retina is not yet fully developed. Newborn babies tend to have poor fixation capability, they hav e limited ability to discriminate color, limited visual fields, and an estimated visual acuity of somewhere between 20/200 and 20/400. ( http://www. tsbvi. edu/Education/infant/)Although visual progressions with infant are not that fully developed, it has been noted that they can recognize familiar faces already, especially with their mothers compared with strangers. As their visual perception improves, they begin to identify familiar faces especially the immediate families and began to respond my smiling to them. Infants started to become aware of his environment and begin to explore his world by gazing and started to become amaze with different colors especially the brighter ones compared before that they only see things in black and white.Aside from the visual perception, auditory system plays a vital role in speech development. Auditory system is more matured compared with visual system. It even started when baby is still inside the womb, when they recognize various sounds insid e the womb and even outside his environment like people voices, shower, and music. Thus, both visual and auditory leads to speech perception, and this even started when they are still fetuses, inside their mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ womb. Fetuses can even recognize their mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ voice, but not that familiar with their fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ voices.When the mother tells a story and sings to her unborn baby, when the baby is born and hears the story and music he hears he becomes familiar to it, and prefers to listen over and over again. It simply explains that familiarity to certain aspect plays an important role to infants learning. Newborns way of reacting to certain situations is through actions and making sound. When they are hungry or wet, they cry to let the mothers know what they need. When they like something they starts to smile and coo (like ahÃ¢â¬â¢s and ohÃ¢â¬â¢s).As infants started to grow, their speech also developed. They even began to babble, imitating how people speak. Thei r first few words could be Ã¢â¬Å"mamaÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"dadaÃ¢â¬ because they are already familiar with these words, and they are able to adapt and be able to express it by themselves. They can even respond to comforting tones, can distinguish recognizable voices and also responsive to changes in tone of voice, and to sounds other than speech. By the time they become toddlers, they can now speak and be able to convey what they want.Most of the words they know comes from the people within the environment, thus a good environment is encouraged to enable toddlers to learn Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ words. Because what they hear mostly, they adapt it and learned from it. Toddlers enjoy listening to music and even sing and dance to it. They like hearing stories and when accompanied with different tones of voice they become more amazed to it. They can already distinguish different body parts, and can name pictures in the book when asked. By the time they are already 3 Ã¢â¬â 4 years old, the y tend to ask questions and become more interested with several things.They begin to explore their own world by role playing, interacting with other kids and even conversing with adults. They start to combine 4 Ã¢â¬â 5 words and can make simple sentences. (Ã¢â¬Å"Child Development, p. 1067) now clearly express how they feel because they can already convey how they feel and they are easy to understand. When kids reached the age of 4 or 5, basic vocabulary and grammar have already been learned, this will continue to develop especially when they started to go to school.New words will be learned, although they are bombarded with more words they are able to perceive and learn from it. Slowly, their speech system has made a progress within few years. Families and environment are important factors in shaping oneÃ¢â¬â¢s character through his speech. Speech not only pertains to what is being said rather it can also affect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s character. A good character shines through his words , if it is filled with goodness and love, thus wisdom through his words could be attained to it. References: Cheour, M. Milestones of language development Development of Visual and Auditory Systems in Early Childhood Judith C. Goodman and Howard C. Nusbaum (1994)The Development of Speech Perception:The Transition from Speech Sounds to Spoken Words.The MIT Press Kuhl, P. K. (1983). Perception of auditory equivalence classes for speech in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 6, 263Ã¢â¬â285. Child Development, July/August 2004, Volume 75, Number 4, Pages 1067Ã¢â¬â108 http://www.tsbvi.edu/Education/infant/page7.htm http://www.hip.atr.co.jp/departments/Dept1/progress96/node14.html Ã
Monday, September 16, 2019
Promote Equality, Diversity and Inclusion in Work with Children and Young People 1.1 Identify the current legislation and codes of practice relevant to the promotion of equality and valuing of diversity The current codes of practice relevant to the promotion of equality and valuing of diversity are as follows:- Every Child Matters 2003 and Children Act 2004 updated in 2010 Help Children Achieve More Ã¢â¬â Organisations and agencies involved with children between birth and 19 years should ensure children to be Safe, Healthy, Enjoy and Achieve, Economic well-being and Positive contribution. Equality Act 2010 Ã¢â¬â Anti-discrimination legislation. To reinforce inclusion of any child regardless of disability or race.Ã SEN code of Practice 2001- The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001. Strengthened the rights of parents and SEN children to a main stream education.Ã Human Rights Act 1998 Ã¢â¬â Highlighted the principle that all humans have the same rights and should be treated equally.Ã UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 leads on from the Human Rights Act and sets out the rights of all children to be treated equally and fairly and without discrimination. 1.2 Explain the importance of promoting the rights of all children and young people to participation and equality of access It is important to promote the rights of all children and young adults to participation and equality of access for the reasons of:- A. Human Rights All children have a right to learn and play together. Children should not be discriminated against for any reason. Inclusion is concerned with improving schools for staff as well as pupils. B. Equal Opportunities in education Children do better in inclusive settings, both academically and socially. Children should not need to be separated to achieve adequate educational provision. Inclusive education is a more efficient use of educational resources. C. Social Opportunities Inclusion in education is one aspect of inclusion in society. Children need to be involved and integrated with all of their peers. 1.3 Explain the importance and benefits of valuing and promoting cultural diversity in work with children and young people The benefits of valuing and promoting cultural diversity are that children will grow up in an environment which values cultural diversity and enables us to learn from one another. Children will also become used to finding out about other cultures and beliefs from an early age. In this way they will not grow up thinking that their own culture is the same as everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. Children from all backgrounds need to know that their culture and status is valued to help them feel settled and secure. This then contributes to their being able to learn. If they feel isolated or anxious, it is more likely that learning will be difficult for them.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Premarital Sex Premarital sex is defined as when two people begin to engage in sexual intercourse before marriage. In todays society premarital sex has become part of the norm and has been accepted. Many young adults are living together before marriage and engaging in sexual activity. It has become apparent that more people are involving themselves in premarital sex and do not acknowledge that it is an immoral act. Sex has become a symbol for pleasure and is no longer considered sacred in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. I believe sex before marriage should not be accepted and that abstinence should be promoted more.According to civil law, the church/divine law and the teachings we learned in Grade 12 religion class, premarital sex is an immoral behavior that should not be tolerated. Premarital sex has become common and acknowledged in todays society. In the Canadian government there is no law nor criminal offence towards premarital sex. The moral issue of sex before marriage has become criti cal in society and has become accustomed to peoples lives. Ã¢â¬Å"Canadian survey indicates fewer than one in 10 engaged women in the country agrees with the statement Ã¢â¬Å"sex before marriage is not a good idea. Weddingbells Magazine said its survey of 1,241 people found 8 percent of engaged women agreed with the statement, with only 4 percent saying their strongly agreed, CanWest News Service reported WednesdayÃ¢â¬ (UPI) This explains how many people do not take premarital sex as a wrong action but instead as a good idea. Very few people follow the moral doings of saving sex before marriage. Since the government does not have a specified law against this act it is not followed nor respected. Society has socially accepted that people, including young teens, are involved in sexual activity before marriage.Society promotes Ã¢â¬Å"safe sexÃ¢â¬ by engaging the use of birth control and condoms. Society gives the impression that premarital sex is tolerable as long as youÃ¢â¬â¢r e protected. Sex has become a symbol of lust instead of what it is truly meant for, which is love. Society has taken over the meaning of intimacy and has overwritten it. The media endorses sex through famous artists, television shows as well as music. It has become apparent that most songs underlie the meaning of sex and portray the immoral act. Society constantly sends a bad message to the public causing the increase of premarital sex. Today 67% of youth are sexually active before marriage. Teenagers are about as good at contraception as they are at making their beds, doing their homework and doing their chores. Teenage girls have an average of six sex partners in high school. In 1966, 6% of white babies were born out of wedlock, now its up to 25%. In 1967, 22% of black babies were born out of wedlock. Now 66% of black babies are born out of wedlock. Ã¢â¬Å"(Macdonald, D) This proves the increase in sexual activity over the years and how vital it has become in our society. Statisti cs have increased proving that people mostly do it for pleasure instead of love.The realism is that there is no consequence regarding the law against this decision, which greatly impacts peoples choices. Society continues to acknowledge the immoral behavior causing it to become socially accepted. Premarital sex is looked upon as a sin in regards to the Catholic Church. Growing up most were always told that abstinence was a must and marriage was not acceptable if purity wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t present. Sex before marriage is referred to as fornication in the Bible. As Christians, The Bible is a primary source that we look to for guidance. The Bible teaches us the teachings of God as well as the sins.Premarital sex is a sin when we refer to the Bible. In the Bible it states, Ã¢â¬Å"Now the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord; and the Lord for the body. Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth is without (outside) the body; but he that commiteth fornication sinneth against his own body. Ã¢â¬Å"(1 Corinthians 6:13). This means that as Christians we should use our body in ways to glorify God. By committing the act of fornication we are committing a sin and are considered as evil. According to God, sex is supposed to be meant for reproduction and love, not for pleasure and lust.The act of sex is behavior that goes against our faith and beliefs. The bible is our standard of what is right and wrong. In the bible it states, Ã¢â¬Å"But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death. Ã¢â¬ (Revelation 21:8). This means that God views the sin of premarital sex as equal to murder, prostitution, and lying. Even though society accepts fornication, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean God does. As Catholics we are to follow his blessings and teachings regardless of society.God wants us to be pure until it i s the appropriate time and to flee from our selfish desires. Ã¢â¬Å"Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body, but he who sins sexually sins against his own body. Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your bodyÃ¢â¬ (1 Corinthians 6:18-20). This scripture means that premarital sex is not only a sin against God but it is also a sin against your own body.Our bodies are sacred and pure; once we have sex we loose our purity and wholesomeness. God gave us our body and we are to cherish it and respect his rules by not having sex until marriage. We are to honor God and thank him for the gift of life by becoming abstinent until married. Over the course of the grade 12 semester we learned many things that interchange with the moral reasoning of premarital sex. We learn that having sex before marriage is a ma xim, something that we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do but people do anyways. Morality is defined as the ways people obtain good through rules and laws.Ethics is defined as the search for the infinite good, which guides to morality. Growing up we learn different morals and values that we are supposed to respect and follow. Abstinence is something we learn to follow based on our religious beliefs. The morality of premarital sex is that it is wrong and it goes against our morals. Our ethics and morality is supposed to lead us to happiness and good and it is said that if we disobey the value of abstinence then we will not reach this goal. We also learned about Sigmund Freud and the three parts of our unconscious mind. When people have sex before marriage Ã¢â¬Å"the idÃ¢â¬ is in recognition.This part of the mind focuses on the pleasure principle and our strong desires. People are not concerned with the consequences but instead acting upon their satisfaction. When Christians have premarital sex t hey may form a guilty conscience. Knowing that they have disobeyed the laws of their faith they form a Ã¢â¬Å"well formed conscienceÃ¢â¬ . A well-formed conscience is formed through Church, Scriptures and Community and usually entails recognizing ones own guilt from past wrong doings. One has a conscience knowing that they have committed a sin and went against GodÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings.Our conscience helps us show that we recognize our wrong doings and know that we violated the church scriptures. In conclusion premarital sex has been proven that it is an immoral act and should not be accepted. There is no civil law or offence against it which makes it that much more common in society. Society promotes safe sex causing an increase in premarital sex. Society sends a sinful message to the public, impacting their decision about sex. The church boldly represents premarital sex as a sin and recognizes it as evil. According to God, sex is supposed to be meant for reproduction and love, not for pleasure and lust.We are to save our sacred bodies for marriage and anything before is referred to as disobeying God as well as your body. Premarital sex goes against our beliefs and morals. The morality of premarital sex is that it is wrong and if we deny that then we will not reach our ultimate happiness. Overall sexual activity is sinful behavior and should be saved until you marry the one special person that you are appropriately able to share your body with. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Life is Sacred. Ã¢â¬ 16 March 2004. www. troubledwith. com/Web/groups/public//@fotf_troubledwith/docume nts/articles/ ? Macdonald, David. What's wrong with sex before marriage? Why Choose Chastity? Ã¢â¬ October 6, 2011. http://www. davidmacd. com/catholic/chastity. htm Mcllhaney, Joe S. , Jr. M. D. Ã¢â¬Å"Testimony of Joe S. Mcllhaney, Jr. , M. D. Ã¢â¬ 16 March 2004: 3- 8. 23 April 2002. www. medinstitute. org/media/testimony. htm Ã¢â¬Å"Poll: Premarital sex OK with CanadiansÃ¢â¬ , June 9, 2010. http://www. upi. com/Odd_News/2010/06/09/Poll-Premarital-sex-OK- with-Canadians/UPI-77871276111501/ Ã¢â¬Å"The Benefits of Chastity Before Marriage. Ã¢â¬ 17 March 2004. www. foreverfamilies. net/xml/articles/benefitsofchastity. aspx